Radiation can bring a person good, but can bring big problems. Benefit to humanity is the energy, because on our planet ends natural resources of oil and gas and alternative energy, humanity does not seek to quickly move the remains supposedly the best option – radiation (nuclear power plants).
Harm or large problem is nuclear weapons, and the accident at the atomic and nuclear power plants, an example of ChNPP and Fukushima – Yes this is a great sorrow for all the people. But radiation is also in space, the more ozone holes in the atmosphere, the more radiation damages the earth, people, animals, plants, water.
So, let’s first deal with the terms. There are several types of radiation. Alpha radiation is a flow of heavy particles, consisting of neutrons and protons, cannot penetrate even through the sheet of paper and a human skin. Becomes dangerous only if swallowed with air, food, through the wound. Beta radiation is a flow of negatively charged particles that can penetrate through the skin to a depth of 1-2 cm. Gamma radiation has the highest penetration capability. This type of radiation can delay the thick lead or concrete slab.
Danger of radiation is its ionizing radiation that interacts with atoms and molecules, which this interaction turns to positively charged ions, breaking chemical bonds of molecules of living organisms, causing biologically important changes.
The exposure dose is the main ionization value of dry air. It is measured in Roentgens.
The absorbed dose is the amount of absorbed energy per unit mass of the substance. The units are gray and Councils. 1 Gy = 100 rad.
Dose equivalent measure of the biological effects on living organisms, is calculated as the absorbed dose by a quality factor (CB), that shows the ability of this type of radiation damage the tissues of the body. The units are in REM or Sievert. CB for x-ray, beta – and gamma-rays is equal to 1, for protons and neutrons 3-10, for alpha radiation 20. Here we see that alpha radiation, although it has a low penetration, but ingestion is the most hazardous. If the CB = 1, we can assume that 1 Mar corresponds to an absorbed dose of 1 rad. To simplify the calculations, we can assume that the exposure dose of 1 roentgen for biological tissue corresponds to an absorbed dose of 1 rad and equivalent dose of 1 REM (CB = 1), i.e. roughly 1 G = 1 rad = 1 REM. 1 SV = 1 Gy (CB = 1).
Dose – shows what dose of radiation over a period of time received by an object or a living organism. Unit of measurement – SV/h. Equivalent dose of the show dosimeters calibrated, as a rule, in mSv/h or MCR/h (old model). 1 SV = 100 G and respectively 1 SV/h = 100 P/h.
Effective equivalent dose is used in the calculation of the individual irradiation dose is equivalent dose, multiplied by a factor of radiation risk for the different organs. In other words, human organs and tissues have different sensitivity to radiation exposure. The most susceptible to radiation of the red bone marrow, lungs, gonads. Less susceptible to the radiation of the thyroid gland, muscles and other organs. To summarize dose equivalents multiplied by corresponding coefficients of radiation risk bodies, get the effective equivalent dose, measured in REM and SV. 1 SV = 100 REM.