Radioactive substances are characterized by ionizing radiation energy which is sufficient for the Department of electrons from atoms (resulting in the formation of charged ions) and breaking of chemical bonds. Ionizing radiation can damage any type of tissue in the body and in most cases the damage from ionizing radiation beyond repair. Moreover, any violation of the natural repair mechanism of the organism leads to the formation of cancer cells.
In the General case, the degree of damage of an organism depends on the intensity and duration of exposure to radiation at him. Health effects from radiation exposure subdivided into two main categories: stochastic and stochastic not.
Stochastic (random) the effects of radiation on the human body.
Stochastic consequences of irradiation associated with long term exposure with a minimum level of radiation (the name «stochastic» means the probability of something). The higher radiation level, the mhave health effects, but the level of radiation does not affect their appearance.
The majority considers cancer key implication for human health caused by irradiation. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells. Usually the body controls the engine of growth and development of cells, and the restoration of damaged tissues. As a result of damage at the cellular or molecular level, this mechanism is impaired, leading to the uncontrolled growth of cells. That is why the ability of radiation break chemical bonds in atoms and molecules makes it a potent carcinogen.
In addition, a group of stochastic or random effects of exposure include changes in DNA caused by radiation – so-called cell mutations. In some cases, the body can not cope with the task of recovery of such formations, which leads to the appearance of new mutations. Mutations can be teratogenn or genetic. Teratogenic mutations caused by exposure of the fetus and only affect people affected by radiation. Genetic same mutation transferred to the next generations.
Not stochastic effects of radiation on human organism.
Not stochastic health effects associated with exposure to high-intensity – the stronger the impact of radiation on human body, the more serious health effects. Short-term intensive radiation called acute irradiation.
Unlike cancer, the effects of short term exposure usually occur quite quickly. The most common consequences of acute exposure – burns and the so-called radiation sickness, or radiation injury that causes premature aging and often fatal. Upon irradiation by the doses of significant capacity death occurs within two months. The main symptoms of radiation sickness include nausea, weakness, hair loss, skin burns, violation of the work of the different bodies.
From a number of health effects that usually occur in acute irradiation, suffer and patients undergoing radiotherapy.